The Leybold e-beam evaporator is a turbo pumped thin film evaporator with four water-cooled evaporation sources. This system is mainly used to evaporate high quality n-type contacts to semiconductors as well as to evaporate high purity gold layers to various substrates. Due to the capability to change targets under vacuum conditions, multi layer films can be evaporated without exposing to air. Evaporation rates are controlled manually by varying the cathode current of the e-beam source. Rates are monitored with a standard 6MHz crystal oscillator. In addition to the e-beam source, two thermal evaporation sources may be mounted in the system as well. A nitrogen baffle for cooling the sidewalls of the machine is available in order to speed up the pump process.
The Balzers three source thermal evaporator is primary used for thermal evaporation of p-type contacts. Tungsten strip or wire resistance heater source boats are used to hold the evaporation materials. The rates are controlled manually by varying the current through the source boats and monitored the same way as for the Leybold evaporator.

Typical Targets (Leybold e-beam evaporator): Au, Sn, Ni, Ti, Cr, AuGe, Pd, Pt
Typical Targets (Balzers thermal evaporator): Au, Zn
Maximum wafer size: up to 15 cm
Typical material rates: 0.2nm/s
Low e-7 ultimate pressure
Typical pump time: 3 hours